Trust yourself “Tiwala lang”

Just trust “ Tiwala lang”

 No one knows the real you but you. Sometimes it is true that we don’t know ourselves. That’s because we have lost ourselves, or maybe because we never knew ourselves to begin with.

 From my previous experiences, when I was a child, growing up and receive a lot of conflicting and negative messages from my “kababata” and family, with these experiences I felt confused of who really I am, what am I supposed to be here. There are times that I want to give my decision and my parents keep on saying not to do that way, but they don’t even one single instances to explain why? From those experiences, I learned not to trust my ability to make a good decision because the people in my life did not validate my view of reality. I often ask people, friends, and relatives on what to do.

When I grew up, put me to realize and was telling myself that my opinion didn’t matter. I valued others opinion above my own, I feel something in my mind that I have something to be proud of.

After reading the module of social learning theory, I realized that what I felt is part of environmental challenges that affects my personal behaviour, perhaps that will make me better person as well. I have learnt things through my experiences and learn to value what I have. From then, I believe in myself that I can do that, even without support from my parents, I can make it my own way. “ Pag may tiwala sa sarili may mararating”. As what Psychologist Albert Bandura in his social learning theory, that self-effectiveness / self-efficacy is developed from external experiences and self-perception is influential in determining the outcome of many events and this represents the personal perception of external social factors. People observe others acting within an environment whether natural or social. These observations are remembered by an individual and help shape social behaviors and cognitive processes. This theoretical approach proposes the idea that by changing how an individual learns their behaviors in the early stages of mental development could have a large impact on their mental processes in later stages of development. Clearly stated that self-efficacy is within us, it is our responsibility to use and to develop in it.

Self-efficacy is formed in part through the four major psychological processes, cognitive, motivational, affective and selection. Cognitiveà higher the efficacy, higher the goals, then, when high goal is reached, efficacy is higher. Beliefs in efficacy shape the types of anticipatory scenarios they form and rehearse.  People with high self-efficacy visualize successful scenarios which support their performance.  People who doubt their efficacy visualize failure scenarios and dwell on what could go wrong.  Self-fulfilling prophesy.  Self-efficacy beliefs influence fundamental attributions. People who regard themselves as highly efficacious attribute their failures to insufficient effort, those who regard themselves as inefficacious attribute their failures to low ability. Causal attributions affect motivation, performance and affective reactions mainly through beliefs of self-efficacy. Self-efficacy beliefs contribute to motivation in several ways: They determine the goals people set for them; how much effort they expend; how long they persevere in the face of difficulties; and their resilience to failures. When faced with obstacles and failures people who harbor self-doubts about their capabilities slacken their efforts or give up quickly. Those who have a strong belief in their capabilities exert greater effort when they fail to master the challenge. Strong perseverance contributes to performance accomplishments. A low sense of efficacy to exercise control produces depression as well as anxiety. It does so in several different ways. One route to depression is through unfulfilled aspiration. People who impose on themselves standards of self-worth they judge they cannot attain drive themselves to bouts of depression. A second efficacy route to depression is through a low sense of social efficacy. Perceived self-efficacy to control thought processes is a key factor in regulating thought produced stress and depression. It is not the sheer frequency of disturbing thoughts but the perceived inability to turn them off that is the major source of distress. Both perceived coping self-efficacy and thought control efficacy operate jointly to reduce anxiety and avoidant behavior. People avoid activities and situations they believe exceed their coping capabilities. People undertake challenging activities and select situations they consider themselves capable of handling.

As a student of UPOU, why is my self-efficacy is important? This will play an important role in my academic achievement. This will relates my first day as a student of PTC, using virtual classroom is quite challenging since, I have never been used this before so, my self-efficacy of this event is not yet developed, as I go along the program, I find that I can use it easily, meaning my self-efficacy increases because I believe that if others can do, I can also do it. Like Schunk(1991) claims that there is evidence that self-efficacy predicts academic achievement, this will develop the momentum of learning and a change of behavior that believing in self and own capability. Bandura (1977) said that efficacy affects the amount of effort and persistence that a person devotes to a task, this also emphasize that self-motivation and eagerness to achieve the goal. In any learning situation, we as students enter with distance learning with the sense of efficacy that is based on our abilities and past experiences in similar task. Our self-efficacy influences what we do, how hard we try and how long we persist throughout the learning program. Perhaps, we can use this EDS 103 Theories of learning to seek efficacy on how are we capable of doing the task together with other task outside academe.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self-efficacy

https://www.verywell.com/what-is-self-efficacy-2795954

http://positivepsychology.org.uk/self-efficacy-definition-bandura-meaning/

Bribing or Rewarding students for Good Behavior

Bribing or Rewarding students for Good Behavior

Many of us educators wonder the difference between a bribe and a reward. After all, both instances, our students are getting something for doing what we want them to do. But, is this helpful in teaching them better behavior or not? Actually, it is important to understand that bribery become an on-going pattern that ultimately teaches our student to act out to get what they want. To make things even more confusing, attempting to curtail our student’s unruly actions by offering a bribe might actually seem like it’s working in the moment. For example, when we are in the shopping mall, while shopping or getting something our children is running throughout the store, this situation will irritate and humiliate us, instead making a deal to eat his favorite foods and toys if he behave. Fortunately the child settles down. Great it works, but we are unaware that we are playing the feeling of the child and after which we discover that our tactics was a sense of powerless. This is because the scenario teaches the child with another method of maintaining control and develops of this behavior as blackmail instead; they don’t believe you anymore as long as there is something in equivalent and likely continue to repeat the strategy as long as it is working for a purpose.

I heard many parents describe interactions with their kids in which they promised all manners of tempting treats and activities in exchange for behaving appropriately. Parents end up feeling as though they are badly bribing their children to comply. Kids can come to expect something extra for simply executing their daily responsibilities, which can in turn lead to a false sense of entitlement. Many of us, teachers and educators confused on what is the difference between giving bribe or rewarding it for good behavior. Generally, bribery occurs under pressure; right slap in the middle of a situation in which our child has apparently developed horns and a tail. It happens quickly, when all we want is to change our child’s behavior on the spot, so we offer him something that we had no previous intention of offering. It is a form of negotiation. On the other hand, the effective use of rewards is quite different, because you are compensating your child for his good behavior, rather than being manipulated and forced. To understand how rewards work, it can be helpful to think in terms of how the work world operates. For example, we do our job and complete the tasks that are required of our position, and our concrete reward is a pay check. While there are numerous other ways in which work can be satisfying, the pay check is the tangible form of a reward that we receive. Likewise, for our child, motivation to please us and teachers might apply more during different phases of development than others, but for the most part, children tend to be externally motivated by things they want or enjoy.

Every teacher has incentives designed to provide students with clear feedback on appropriate classroom behavior, and a path to progress toward mastery of the curriculum. Teachers are free to design their own incentives in the class in order to achieve their objectives. Which system they choose isn’t as important as the fact that there is a system in place and that it’s followed consistently. For instance, students earned extra points if will able to answer the extra questions, while other students are exempted from the 3rd quiz if they got perfect score of 1st and 2nd quizzes. This form of rewards encourages the students to study and work hard for their lesson at the same time learning takes place. Similarly, classroom incentives, prizes and punishments and worst case favouritism are part of a controversial topic for teachers. Many teachers see an advantage for rewards as an appropriate and effective way to manage classroom. Other teachers don’t want to bribe or reward the students, instead encourage the students to their work and motivated by their own way, this is also a way on how to teach the students to become responsible. For example, if we start off the year showering students with rewards, they are going to expect it and will most likely only work for the rewards. However, if we limit prizes from day one, we may find that we can get away from the material aspect a little bit and save ourselves a significant amount of money in the long run.

Whenever possible, determine most rewards ahead of time, be clear with behavioral expectations and do not forget the critical teaching component. It is important to understand that we cannot expect students to do something differently if they do not know how. Our student’s behavior can often be linked to the developmental stage he is moving through. Keeping this in mind is significant because it helps us soften our view. In other words, it’s not that students are always deceitfully acting out; they may just be exercising an undesirable method of accomplishing a developmentally normal task. As adults, we have made it this far in the world because of what we have learned. We can guide our children and students as well to use more appropriate ways of checking off targets. This might involve problem, solving conversations, role playing, or planned field tests that allow our students to practice the new skills they are acquiring. Being a coach and teacher are two of the most effective caps we can wear as a parent and a teacher. In the end, we parents and educators are all still learning too! Taking a look at what behavior we might be reinforcing and how we are reinforcing it may lead to a change in our approach and yield better results.

Actually, we can avoid giving material rewards to our students. Yes we are happy if we receive tangible rewards from anybody, teachers, parents and friends but those are material things that will not last forever. Instead, we try to practice to use an intangible rewards to our students by giving appreciation of their outcome, giving appreciation certificate as a sign of accomplishments, this is one of the ways to motivate students without losing of money and going to department store just to buy candies or toys just for rewards. In the end, positive results that will lead students to discover their potentials by working hard just to attain their objectives, likewise other students who are encouraged or idolized their classmates to gain the same. Remember that when we resort to bribery to control your student’s behavior, the price that you wind up paying is actually a lot higher than it may seem in the moment. Instead, require that our students earn reasonable rewards by taking care of his responsibilities and making positive steps in improving his behavior.

 

http://www.educationandbehavior.com/ideas-for-kids-good-behavior/

http://raisingchildren.net.au/articles/reward_charts.html

http://online.husson.edu/classroom-management-theories/

http://www.parenting.com/article/the-right-way-to-bribe-your-child

Intelligence for All

Intelligence for all

Although all intelligences are important, they are not all the same. Intelligence has been defined many different ways including one’s capacity for logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional, knowledge, planning, creativity and problem solving. It can be more generally described as the ability to identify and interpret information, and to retain it as knowledge to be applied towards adaptive behaviors within an environment (Wiki). All human intelligences are of critical use to us, it would be hard to argue for the supremacy of type of intelligence over another. The computers we use, our phones, our cars, the GPS-guided tractors that harvest our food all depend upon innovations made possible by people high in these intelligences. The people who are smartest in these areas design the logic circuits in our computers, build radio transmitters and receivers, and create high-efficiency engines, and design reapers, threshers and milking machines. We are grateful both to those whose ideas result in safe and efficient equipment and to those who labor using their inventions. We are all thankful to people who have used their verbal intelligence, their perceptual-organizational intelligence, and their other intelligences to help build the world around us.

Researchers recognize some broad intelligence including verbal-propositions intelligence, perceptual-organizational intelligence, thinking quickly, and memory retrieval intelligence. Those mention broad intelligence are all belong in our personal mental abilities and this will be considered our personal intelligence because this will reason about our personality as a whole, including our motives, emotions, thoughts, values, and self-control. Personal intelligence is important because we use this to solve problems of ourselves and about other people, including the members of the family. Basically, children’s attitude and intelligence is influenced from the environment and parents, we usually heard that “That guy is very intelligence like his parents” and “others will say that his parents are very strict with his study habit”. We assume that guy gained his intelligence through genes and how parents nurture his capability.

It is often debated whether intelligence is significantly influenced by a person’s environment or their genes. Now, a study has shown that intelligence is a product of nurture as well as nature. Researchers found that children raised in wealthier and more educated households grow up to be smarter than those brought up in poorer homes. And scientists made this conclusion by studying biological brothers who grew up in different families and had different IQs.  Most individuals acquire their abilities, skills, knowledge, and thoughts by the environment and mostly by people around them. Likewise children are grown in different types of families; poor, rich, urban and rural or other venues. Some people may live in places that they cannot learn of specific skills like a person living near the sea knows how to swim than those people living in the mountain. The skills of our children depend on how we guided and to develop their skills, however lack of facilities does not limit the people capabilities to acquire the skills. Likewise, eagerness will help to learn faster than those children are forced to do. As a parent, I am responsible for the development of my children and guiding them to the right way and broaden their perspective and use their personal intelligence and maximize their capability. Anyway, we are the same creatures and same abilities, what makes us intelligent, skilful or whatever more than other individuals, are just hard work and efforts. If we know more and have more knowledge, then we are superior, and in fact we are intelligent. The essence of our interest determines that what we want to be master at, and become an intelligent in that field.

Although humanity has gained extremely from technological discovery and innovation, we also need to understand personality and social influences as well as we can. These are more challenging in many ways than understanding words: The patterns are more complex and human systems are less predictable. Nonetheless, we need such understanding to ensure that our societies thrive rather than fail; to promote the likelihood that we can live together in peace and that we can enjoy the fruits of what our intelligence provides us. We use personal intelligence to solve basic problems of human living and if we can understand our problem-solving, its limits, and where it can be improved, we may be able to contribute to a more stable and functional society. We use our personal intelligence to alleviate our area of ignorance, we don’t know about ourselves and others. Reducing such misunderstandings can lead to greater accuracy in understanding ourselves and one another. We use our personal intelligence to take responsibility for appreciating and respecting human differences. We all vary and our needs and contributions vary. We use our personal intelligence to better select the opportunities and lower the risks we take. I could use my personal intelligence to understand that I’ll be happiest fulfilling myself and meeting as many standards of excellence as I can. To minimize my risks, I’ll want to be alert to any temptations I might feel to break important social rules and laws, knowing that high achievers sometimes give in to such temptations.

We need to better acknowledge and respect people who use their personal intelligence well. We benefit not only from our computers, phones, cars, and farms, but also from people who understand themselves well and interact with others with respect and understanding. Measures of personal intelligence can help us identify people whose abilities to solve problems in the area of personality are above average. People who see themselves and others most clearly are likely to excel at certain occupations relative to others. Our personalities are the basic units of our family, our neighbours, and our broader community. That’s why we should care about personal intelligence: Understanding personality is an indispensable part of what it means to be human at both an individual and social level. Improving our understanding of personalities may guide our journey toward a more peaceful, better-functioning world.

 

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3011356/Intelligence-based-nature-nurture-Study-finds-environment-plays-significant-role-smart-are.html

https://www.psychologytoday.com/basics/intelligence

http://bigthink.com/going-mental/what-is-intelligence-2