Thank you EDS 103 for Learning!

Thank you EDS 103 for Learning!

Thank you is not enough for everything that I have learned from you EDS 103.

Time flies easily; completing 18 units as requirements for LET is not an easy task, and I am proud myself that I am almost there to close the door for PTC program. And welcome to my DMT program for this 1st semester 2017-2018.

The style of instruction in UPOU has not only developed my intelligence, views of learning, and assessment but my whole being as well. I learned that learning is best done when we are going to synchronize the use of our mind, heart and thinking. I realized that schooling is not as simple as listening to a teacher and memorizing what she wants us to memorize but also enhancing my cognitive learning and continually improved my potential skills and EDS 103 has introduced me to the different learning theories that have made my learning more meaningful and fruitful.

Thank you Teacher Malou for our subject teacher for EDS 103 and EDS 113. Being non-education graduate, I never knew such methods and theories of education such a metacognition concept exists.  I study theories of learning, I have changed my perspective on my personal intelligence and to construct personal learning strategies and style to regulate and self-direct my own learning experience. I realized that I am a learner who filled with ironic and interesting experiences from my previous knowledge. Teacher Malou has taught us how construct and organized our learning. The different learning theories have made me understand myself better as a learner. I have learned how to use different approaches like motivation, cognition and the like to facilitate my personal learning. As an educator someday, it will helped me better understand the differences in my students’ intelligences and how I can use the so many approaches available to deal with these differences in my class.

To conclude my EDS 103 course, my personal view on intelligence is the capability of a person to determine the meaning of his existence, therefore a person who has a well-developed existential intelligence clearly understands his reason for living and know how to improve and make use of all his other intelligences and clearly define success in his own terms and move towards its goal.

Thank you to my group mates, Jessa May De Guzman, Willamee Punay, and Alexander Aveallanosa, even though we have not seen each other, but rest assured that you are part in the history of my life and my journey in UPOU.

 

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Epistemology: My belief facilitates on the ways I learn

MY BELIEF FACILITATES ON THE WAYS I LEARN

We are very particular of the saying “to see is to believe”, we need evidence to validate the truth, that sometimes complicate with our natural beliefs.

Generally, beliefs are assumed to be an intellectual view that represents a ways of an environment, certain ways on how the world works and regulating our behavior in response to the content that deemed correct or true. Having particular content of truth that proportionate with our beliefs, this will probably imitates our actions.

Back in college days, I took Bachelor of Science Major in Physics and I was a member of Knight of the Altar (Sakristan) at the same time “katikista”. Learning principles of science does not agree the principles of theology, if I will put my learning together, I may get confuse on it.  Therefore, my spiritual beliefs does not conform my natural beliefs because science provides answers and evidence of the questions while theology provide an answers to the questions but did not provide any evidence to justify the truth and it can be measured through our “faith” and science can be measured through physical evidence. The immediate question is how, as in certain epistemological theories, one can appeal to sensory experiences to give an account of the justification of perceptual beliefs. Another pertinent question concerns the nature of the relation which justified that beliefs stand in with their justification-conferring grounds. Assuming that perceptual experiences are able to justify the beliefs they cause, on a prominent theory of the structure of justification, the subsequent justified beliefs, or our fundamental beliefs, are then standardly taken to constitute the foundation of an agent’s belief system. Given certain reasonable assumptions, these fundamental beliefs give rise to the idea that has come to be known as the fundamental knowledge. It has been argued that such a position falls victim to the so-called problem of easy knowledge, the idea that, on such theories, certain inferences, involving closure and bootstrapping, allow us far too easily to acquire knowledge (justification) that seems unlikely under the envisaged circumstances. It has further been claimed that certain closure inferences involving basic knowledge are actually instances of the failure of transmission of warrant across entailment.

As parent and educator, the main reason why I sent my children to school is to acquire knowledge and comforted with different activities to facilitate their learning and to resolve such cognitive and effective process of learning. Through this learning process, our children come to know and internalize knowledge. In the view of educational psychologists, beliefs about knowing and knowledge play the vital rule of learning process and what students think knowledge is and how they think they know have become critical components of understanding students learning (Hofer, 2001). Our epistemological perspective is important in academic experience, not only when we encounter new information, beliefs about the nature of knowledge may influence strategy use cognitive processing and conceptual change of learning.

Being a student of UPOU, my personal epistemology is particularly applicable to the continuing education and intellectual development as I shift to a field of interest from engineering science to teaching and or expanding my learning perspective in life as an independent learning as beliefs about knowing and knowledge are potentially important factors of intellectual performance. (Kuhn, 2000) What people believe about the acquisition of knowledge, how it occurs and what it accomplishes – influences its operation in their own lives.

 

Sources:

http://www.mohamedrabeea.com/books/book1_10596.pdf

http://scholarcommons.usf.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=6240&context=etd

Successful learning

NEVER STOP LEARNING

 “In times of change, learners inherit the earth, while the learned find themselves beautifully equipped to deal with a world that no longer exists.”
– Eric Hoffer

module 7Expanding my perspective in life, my heart, my social networks and reinventing myself is a sign for learning. Indeed, every person having different mid-set to facilitates their personal growth. It is the learners who are willing open their minds to achieve what they aiming for their life and gain success in the future.

But how do we engage to learn? Do we want to learn? There are times that we want to learn new things because we are bored of usual things we do. Yet, it is our heart searching for security and comfort. Sometimes we often lose views of what is important to merge in the vision that will lead to inactivity. This how reflection is important, to pose for a while to reflect what we did, the outcomes, and do I am in the right way? To challenge ourselves is not an easy task, to alter what is used to it is very difficult to achieve unless your desired for it is in your ultimate goal. Allowing ourselves to lock in a corner of stagnation is solely our own decision. If you allow yourself to grow, to expand your view in life, experiences, develop your skills and you professional development. We should be ready to face the challenge to go through the learning steps.

As a PTC student of UPOU and aspirant teacher, I will never stop learning. I define teaching is a two way traffic, imparting knowledge to students and learn from students experiences. For almost 1 year in UPOU, I have learnt a lot of things, especially the distinction between learning styles and learning philosophy. Although some experts are now questioning whether learning styles exist (in the manner we’ve come to know them), the preference for a particular approach to learning is thought to be innate. A learning philosophy is something that reflects what a learner has discovered and come to believe about learning. It answers, not the “how” questions (of style) or the “what” questions (of content), but the “why” questions. Why are I am learning? What role does learning play in my professional and personal life?

Happy learning!

 

Constructivism in Classroom

Constructivism in Classroom

Constructivist teachers pose questions and problems, then guide students to help them find their own answers. They use many techniques in the teaching process like prompt students to formulate their own questions, allow multiple interpretations and expressions of learning and encourage group work and the use of peers as resources.

it’s important to realize that the constructivist approach borrows from many other practices in the pursuit of its primary goal: helping students learn HOW TO LEARN. In a constructivist classroom, learning is . . .

Constructed: Students are not blank slates upon which knowledge is etched. They come to learning situations with already formulated knowledge, ideas, and understandings. This previous knowledge is the raw material for the new knowledge they will create.

Active: Student is the person who creates new understanding for him/herself. The teacher coaches, moderates, suggest, but allow the students room to experiment, ask questions, try things that don’t work. Learning activities require the students’ full participation (like hands-on experiments). An important part of the learning process is that students reflect on, and talk about, their activities. Students also help set their own goals and means of assessment.

Reflective:  Students control their own learning process, and they lead the way by reflecting on their experiences. This process makes them experts of their own learning. The teacher helps create situations where the students feel safe questioning and reflecting on their own processes, either privately or in group discussions. The teacher should also create activities that lead the student to reflect on his or her prior knowledge and experiences. Talking about what was learned and how it was learned is really important.

Collaborative: The constructivist classroom relies heavily on collaboration among students. There are many reasons why collaboration contributes to learning. The main reason it is used so much in constructivism is that students learn about learning not only from themselves, but also from their peers. When students review and reflect on their learning processes together, they can pick up strategies and methods from one another.

Inquiry-based:  The main activity in a constructivist classroom is solving problems. Students use inquiry methods to ask questions, investigate a topic, and use a variety of resources to find solutions and answers. As students explore the topic, they draw conclusions, and, as exploration continues, they revisit those conclusions. Exploration of questions leads to more questions.

Evolving: Students have ideas that they may later see were invalid, incorrect, or insufficient to explain new experiences. These ideas are temporary steps in the integration of knowledge. For instance, a child may believe that all trees lose their leaves in the fall, until she visits an evergreen forest. Constructivist teaching takes into account students’ current conceptions and builds from there.

The benefits of constructivism are: Students learn more, and enjoy learning more when they are actively involved, rather than passive listeners, education works best when it concentrates on thinking and understanding, rather than on rote memorization. Constructivism concentrates on learning how to think and understand. Constructivist learning is transferable. In constructivist classrooms, students create organizing principles that they can take with them to other learning settings. Constructivism gives students ownership of what they learn, since learning is based on students’ questions and explorations, and often the students have a hand in designing the assessments as well. Constructivist assessment engages the students’ initiatives and personal investments in their journals, research reports, physical models, and artistic representations. Engaging the creative instincts develops students’ abilities to express knowledge through a variety of ways. The students are also more likely to retain and transfer the new knowledge to real life. By grounding learning activities in an authentic, real-world context, constructivism stimulates and engages students. Students in constructivist classrooms learn to question things and to apply their natural curiosity. Constructivism promotes social and communication skills by creating a classroom environment that emphasizes collaboration and exchange of ideas. Students must learn how to articulate their ideas clearly as well as to collaborate on tasks effectively by sharing in group projects. Students must therefore exchange ideas and so must learn to “negotiate” with others and to evaluate their contributions in a socially acceptable manner. This is essential to success in the real world, since they will always be exposed to a variety of experiences in which they will have to cooperate and navigate among the ideas of others.

What happens when a student gets a new piece of information? The constructivist model says that the student compares the information to the knowledge and understanding he/she already has, and one of three things can occur:

  • The new information matches up with his previous knowledge pretty well (it’s consonant with the previous knowledge), so the student adds it to his understanding. It may take some work, but it’s just a matter of finding the right fit, as with a puzzle piece.
  • The information doesn’t match previous knowledge (it’s dissonant). The student has to change her previous understanding to find a fit for the information. This can be harder work.
  • The information doesn’t match previous knowledge, and it is ignored. Rejected bits of information may just not be absorbed by the student. Or they may float around, waiting for the day when the student’s understanding has developed and permits a fit.

 

 

Sources:

Education Theory

http://www.ucdoer.ie/index.php/Education_Theory/Constructivism_and_Social_Constructivism_in_the_Classroom

What classroom activities reflect constructivism

http://www.calpro-online.org/eric/docs/brown/brown01_06.pdf

Constructivism in Education

http://www.univie.ac.at/constructivism/EvG/papers/114.pdf

Significant Learning

SIGNIFICANT LEARNING

 Sometimes we wonder why the teacher uses colorful chalk with some of the words written on the board. Sometimes the teacher writes in capital letter with important words. These are useful as guides for the students to differentiate the important and unimportant facts. In other words, accurate perception is important in good learning. It is part of the Gestalt principles. Clearly, these principles are useful as guide for teachers as they organize their materials and learning activities. Gestalt is a perspective focuses on the belief that human consciousness cannot be broken down into its elements

 Yet repetition learning is very limited. Learning word perfectly that “the square of the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle is a square to the sum of the squares of the two sides” in Mathematics, while in Physics When body A exerts a force on a body B, then the body B exerts a force, equal in magnitude, opposite in direction and along the same line of action on the body B. Generally, we considered a little value of idea in a form of words, these have learnt without understanding. Indeed one of the real issues in assessing students through formal test and examinations is that is far easier to judge when to award marks if the criterion is remembering a specific recognizing formulation for a law rule, theorem etc. than to judge whether the students own words can be considered to reflect an understanding sufficiently close to the recognized meaning. Yet if understanding is the aim of much teaching ability to reproduce given statements and definitions is of limited interest. So although learning by repetition is an important phenomenon, much of formal education is about a different kind of learning this what we call a significant learning, because, when it becomes very clear that even when it may be justified to assume there to be inherent meaning in the objects and events we perceive in the environment, there is no automatic process of acquiring that meaning., rather we have available cognitive device that allows us to interpret what we see in meaningful ways, because we can call upon existing cognitive resources ,knowledge elements and interpretative frameworks. This cognitive device usually allows us to recognize a chair, even if it is not quite like any chair we have experienced before. Like someone who had never seen a chair might well decide to sit on, just as they might decide to use a convenient boulder as a seat. However, people recognize a chair because they have developed cognitive resources for recognizing chairs based on previous experiences relating to chair.

One of the first tasks teachers face when designing a course is deciding what they want students to learn or get out of their course, students will always learn something, but good teachers want their students to learn something important or significant, rather than something relatively insignificant. We can classify the significant of learning like foundational knowledge; at the base of most other kinds of learning is the need for students to “know” something. Knowing, as used here, refers to students’ ability to understand and remember specific information and ideas. It is important for people today to have some valid basic knowledge, for example, about science, history, literature, geography, etc. foundational knowledge provides the basic understanding that is necessary for other kinds of learning. Application knowledge: this kind of learning occurs when students learn how to engage in some new kind of action, which may be intellectual, physical, social, etc. Learning how to engage in various kinds of thinking (critical, creative, practical) is an important form of application learning. But this category of significant learning also includes developing certain skills or learning how to manage complex projects. Application learning allows other kinds of learning to become useful. Integration learning; when students are able to see and understand the connections between different things, an important kind of learning has occurred. The act of making new connections gives learners a new form of power, especially intellectual power. Human Dimension; when students learn something important about their own Self and/or about others, it enables them to interact more effectively with themselves or with others, students discover the personal and/or social implications of what they have learned. What they learn or the way in which they learn sometimes gives students a new understanding of themselves (self-image) or a new vision of what they want to become (self-ideal). This kind of learning informs students about the human significance of what they are learning.

Sometimes a learning experience changes’ the degree to which students care about something. This may be reflected in the form of new feelings, interests, and/or values. Any of these changes means students now care about something to a greater degree or in a way than they did before. When students care about something, they then have the energy they need for learning more about it and making it a part of their lives. Without the energy for learning, nothing significant happens.  Students also need how to learn something about the process of learning itself. It may be learning how to be a better student, how to engage in a particular kind of inquiry for a specific methods or scientific reference or how to become self-directing learners, this enables students to continue learning in the future and to do so with greater effectiveness.

 

Sources: 

Steve Paul (1952-2001): Creating Significant Learning experiences

http://www.unl.edu/philosophy/[L._Dee_Fink]_Creating_Significant_Learning_Experi(BookZZ.org).pdf

 Dee Fink’s Taxonomy of Significant Learning
http://www.byui.edu/outcomes-and-assessment-old/the-basics/step-1-articulate-outcomes/dee-finks-taxonomy-of-significant-learning

Trust yourself “Tiwala lang”

Just trust “ Tiwala lang”

 No one knows the real you but you. Sometimes it is true that we don’t know ourselves. That’s because we have lost ourselves, or maybe because we never knew ourselves to begin with.

 From my previous experiences, when I was a child, growing up and receive a lot of conflicting and negative messages from my “kababata” and family, with these experiences I felt confused of who really I am, what am I supposed to be here. There are times that I want to give my decision and my parents keep on saying not to do that way, but they don’t even one single instances to explain why? From those experiences, I learned not to trust my ability to make a good decision because the people in my life did not validate my view of reality. I often ask people, friends, and relatives on what to do.

When I grew up, put me to realize and was telling myself that my opinion didn’t matter. I valued others opinion above my own, I feel something in my mind that I have something to be proud of.

After reading the module of social learning theory, I realized that what I felt is part of environmental challenges that affects my personal behaviour, perhaps that will make me better person as well. I have learnt things through my experiences and learn to value what I have. From then, I believe in myself that I can do that, even without support from my parents, I can make it my own way. “ Pag may tiwala sa sarili may mararating”. As what Psychologist Albert Bandura in his social learning theory, that self-effectiveness / self-efficacy is developed from external experiences and self-perception is influential in determining the outcome of many events and this represents the personal perception of external social factors. People observe others acting within an environment whether natural or social. These observations are remembered by an individual and help shape social behaviors and cognitive processes. This theoretical approach proposes the idea that by changing how an individual learns their behaviors in the early stages of mental development could have a large impact on their mental processes in later stages of development. Clearly stated that self-efficacy is within us, it is our responsibility to use and to develop in it.

Self-efficacy is formed in part through the four major psychological processes, cognitive, motivational, affective and selection. Cognitiveà higher the efficacy, higher the goals, then, when high goal is reached, efficacy is higher. Beliefs in efficacy shape the types of anticipatory scenarios they form and rehearse.  People with high self-efficacy visualize successful scenarios which support their performance.  People who doubt their efficacy visualize failure scenarios and dwell on what could go wrong.  Self-fulfilling prophesy.  Self-efficacy beliefs influence fundamental attributions. People who regard themselves as highly efficacious attribute their failures to insufficient effort, those who regard themselves as inefficacious attribute their failures to low ability. Causal attributions affect motivation, performance and affective reactions mainly through beliefs of self-efficacy. Self-efficacy beliefs contribute to motivation in several ways: They determine the goals people set for them; how much effort they expend; how long they persevere in the face of difficulties; and their resilience to failures. When faced with obstacles and failures people who harbor self-doubts about their capabilities slacken their efforts or give up quickly. Those who have a strong belief in their capabilities exert greater effort when they fail to master the challenge. Strong perseverance contributes to performance accomplishments. A low sense of efficacy to exercise control produces depression as well as anxiety. It does so in several different ways. One route to depression is through unfulfilled aspiration. People who impose on themselves standards of self-worth they judge they cannot attain drive themselves to bouts of depression. A second efficacy route to depression is through a low sense of social efficacy. Perceived self-efficacy to control thought processes is a key factor in regulating thought produced stress and depression. It is not the sheer frequency of disturbing thoughts but the perceived inability to turn them off that is the major source of distress. Both perceived coping self-efficacy and thought control efficacy operate jointly to reduce anxiety and avoidant behavior. People avoid activities and situations they believe exceed their coping capabilities. People undertake challenging activities and select situations they consider themselves capable of handling.

As a student of UPOU, why is my self-efficacy is important? This will play an important role in my academic achievement. This will relates my first day as a student of PTC, using virtual classroom is quite challenging since, I have never been used this before so, my self-efficacy of this event is not yet developed, as I go along the program, I find that I can use it easily, meaning my self-efficacy increases because I believe that if others can do, I can also do it. Like Schunk(1991) claims that there is evidence that self-efficacy predicts academic achievement, this will develop the momentum of learning and a change of behavior that believing in self and own capability. Bandura (1977) said that efficacy affects the amount of effort and persistence that a person devotes to a task, this also emphasize that self-motivation and eagerness to achieve the goal. In any learning situation, we as students enter with distance learning with the sense of efficacy that is based on our abilities and past experiences in similar task. Our self-efficacy influences what we do, how hard we try and how long we persist throughout the learning program. Perhaps, we can use this EDS 103 Theories of learning to seek efficacy on how are we capable of doing the task together with other task outside academe.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self-efficacy

https://www.verywell.com/what-is-self-efficacy-2795954

http://positivepsychology.org.uk/self-efficacy-definition-bandura-meaning/

Bribing or Rewarding students for Good Behavior

Bribing or Rewarding students for Good Behavior

Many of us educators wonder the difference between a bribe and a reward. After all, both instances, our students are getting something for doing what we want them to do. But, is this helpful in teaching them better behavior or not? Actually, it is important to understand that bribery become an on-going pattern that ultimately teaches our student to act out to get what they want. To make things even more confusing, attempting to curtail our student’s unruly actions by offering a bribe might actually seem like it’s working in the moment. For example, when we are in the shopping mall, while shopping or getting something our children is running throughout the store, this situation will irritate and humiliate us, instead making a deal to eat his favorite foods and toys if he behave. Fortunately the child settles down. Great it works, but we are unaware that we are playing the feeling of the child and after which we discover that our tactics was a sense of powerless. This is because the scenario teaches the child with another method of maintaining control and develops of this behavior as blackmail instead; they don’t believe you anymore as long as there is something in equivalent and likely continue to repeat the strategy as long as it is working for a purpose.

I heard many parents describe interactions with their kids in which they promised all manners of tempting treats and activities in exchange for behaving appropriately. Parents end up feeling as though they are badly bribing their children to comply. Kids can come to expect something extra for simply executing their daily responsibilities, which can in turn lead to a false sense of entitlement. Many of us, teachers and educators confused on what is the difference between giving bribe or rewarding it for good behavior. Generally, bribery occurs under pressure; right slap in the middle of a situation in which our child has apparently developed horns and a tail. It happens quickly, when all we want is to change our child’s behavior on the spot, so we offer him something that we had no previous intention of offering. It is a form of negotiation. On the other hand, the effective use of rewards is quite different, because you are compensating your child for his good behavior, rather than being manipulated and forced. To understand how rewards work, it can be helpful to think in terms of how the work world operates. For example, we do our job and complete the tasks that are required of our position, and our concrete reward is a pay check. While there are numerous other ways in which work can be satisfying, the pay check is the tangible form of a reward that we receive. Likewise, for our child, motivation to please us and teachers might apply more during different phases of development than others, but for the most part, children tend to be externally motivated by things they want or enjoy.

Every teacher has incentives designed to provide students with clear feedback on appropriate classroom behavior, and a path to progress toward mastery of the curriculum. Teachers are free to design their own incentives in the class in order to achieve their objectives. Which system they choose isn’t as important as the fact that there is a system in place and that it’s followed consistently. For instance, students earned extra points if will able to answer the extra questions, while other students are exempted from the 3rd quiz if they got perfect score of 1st and 2nd quizzes. This form of rewards encourages the students to study and work hard for their lesson at the same time learning takes place. Similarly, classroom incentives, prizes and punishments and worst case favouritism are part of a controversial topic for teachers. Many teachers see an advantage for rewards as an appropriate and effective way to manage classroom. Other teachers don’t want to bribe or reward the students, instead encourage the students to their work and motivated by their own way, this is also a way on how to teach the students to become responsible. For example, if we start off the year showering students with rewards, they are going to expect it and will most likely only work for the rewards. However, if we limit prizes from day one, we may find that we can get away from the material aspect a little bit and save ourselves a significant amount of money in the long run.

Whenever possible, determine most rewards ahead of time, be clear with behavioral expectations and do not forget the critical teaching component. It is important to understand that we cannot expect students to do something differently if they do not know how. Our student’s behavior can often be linked to the developmental stage he is moving through. Keeping this in mind is significant because it helps us soften our view. In other words, it’s not that students are always deceitfully acting out; they may just be exercising an undesirable method of accomplishing a developmentally normal task. As adults, we have made it this far in the world because of what we have learned. We can guide our children and students as well to use more appropriate ways of checking off targets. This might involve problem, solving conversations, role playing, or planned field tests that allow our students to practice the new skills they are acquiring. Being a coach and teacher are two of the most effective caps we can wear as a parent and a teacher. In the end, we parents and educators are all still learning too! Taking a look at what behavior we might be reinforcing and how we are reinforcing it may lead to a change in our approach and yield better results.

Actually, we can avoid giving material rewards to our students. Yes we are happy if we receive tangible rewards from anybody, teachers, parents and friends but those are material things that will not last forever. Instead, we try to practice to use an intangible rewards to our students by giving appreciation of their outcome, giving appreciation certificate as a sign of accomplishments, this is one of the ways to motivate students without losing of money and going to department store just to buy candies or toys just for rewards. In the end, positive results that will lead students to discover their potentials by working hard just to attain their objectives, likewise other students who are encouraged or idolized their classmates to gain the same. Remember that when we resort to bribery to control your student’s behavior, the price that you wind up paying is actually a lot higher than it may seem in the moment. Instead, require that our students earn reasonable rewards by taking care of his responsibilities and making positive steps in improving his behavior.

 

http://www.educationandbehavior.com/ideas-for-kids-good-behavior/

http://raisingchildren.net.au/articles/reward_charts.html

http://online.husson.edu/classroom-management-theories/

http://www.parenting.com/article/the-right-way-to-bribe-your-child