Intelligence for All

Intelligence for all

Although all intelligences are important, they are not all the same. Intelligence has been defined many different ways including one’s capacity for logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional, knowledge, planning, creativity and problem solving. It can be more generally described as the ability to identify and interpret information, and to retain it as knowledge to be applied towards adaptive behaviors within an environment (Wiki). All human intelligences are of critical use to us, it would be hard to argue for the supremacy of type of intelligence over another. The computers we use, our phones, our cars, the GPS-guided tractors that harvest our food all depend upon innovations made possible by people high in these intelligences. The people who are smartest in these areas design the logic circuits in our computers, build radio transmitters and receivers, and create high-efficiency engines, and design reapers, threshers and milking machines. We are grateful both to those whose ideas result in safe and efficient equipment and to those who labor using their inventions. We are all thankful to people who have used their verbal intelligence, their perceptual-organizational intelligence, and their other intelligences to help build the world around us.

Researchers recognize some broad intelligence including verbal-propositions intelligence, perceptual-organizational intelligence, thinking quickly, and memory retrieval intelligence. Those mention broad intelligence are all belong in our personal mental abilities and this will be considered our personal intelligence because this will reason about our personality as a whole, including our motives, emotions, thoughts, values, and self-control. Personal intelligence is important because we use this to solve problems of ourselves and about other people, including the members of the family. Basically, children’s attitude and intelligence is influenced from the environment and parents, we usually heard that “That guy is very intelligence like his parents” and “others will say that his parents are very strict with his study habit”. We assume that guy gained his intelligence through genes and how parents nurture his capability.

It is often debated whether intelligence is significantly influenced by a person’s environment or their genes. Now, a study has shown that intelligence is a product of nurture as well as nature. Researchers found that children raised in wealthier and more educated households grow up to be smarter than those brought up in poorer homes. And scientists made this conclusion by studying biological brothers who grew up in different families and had different IQs.  Most individuals acquire their abilities, skills, knowledge, and thoughts by the environment and mostly by people around them. Likewise children are grown in different types of families; poor, rich, urban and rural or other venues. Some people may live in places that they cannot learn of specific skills like a person living near the sea knows how to swim than those people living in the mountain. The skills of our children depend on how we guided and to develop their skills, however lack of facilities does not limit the people capabilities to acquire the skills. Likewise, eagerness will help to learn faster than those children are forced to do. As a parent, I am responsible for the development of my children and guiding them to the right way and broaden their perspective and use their personal intelligence and maximize their capability. Anyway, we are the same creatures and same abilities, what makes us intelligent, skilful or whatever more than other individuals, are just hard work and efforts. If we know more and have more knowledge, then we are superior, and in fact we are intelligent. The essence of our interest determines that what we want to be master at, and become an intelligent in that field.

Although humanity has gained extremely from technological discovery and innovation, we also need to understand personality and social influences as well as we can. These are more challenging in many ways than understanding words: The patterns are more complex and human systems are less predictable. Nonetheless, we need such understanding to ensure that our societies thrive rather than fail; to promote the likelihood that we can live together in peace and that we can enjoy the fruits of what our intelligence provides us. We use personal intelligence to solve basic problems of human living and if we can understand our problem-solving, its limits, and where it can be improved, we may be able to contribute to a more stable and functional society. We use our personal intelligence to alleviate our area of ignorance, we don’t know about ourselves and others. Reducing such misunderstandings can lead to greater accuracy in understanding ourselves and one another. We use our personal intelligence to take responsibility for appreciating and respecting human differences. We all vary and our needs and contributions vary. We use our personal intelligence to better select the opportunities and lower the risks we take. I could use my personal intelligence to understand that I’ll be happiest fulfilling myself and meeting as many standards of excellence as I can. To minimize my risks, I’ll want to be alert to any temptations I might feel to break important social rules and laws, knowing that high achievers sometimes give in to such temptations.

We need to better acknowledge and respect people who use their personal intelligence well. We benefit not only from our computers, phones, cars, and farms, but also from people who understand themselves well and interact with others with respect and understanding. Measures of personal intelligence can help us identify people whose abilities to solve problems in the area of personality are above average. People who see themselves and others most clearly are likely to excel at certain occupations relative to others. Our personalities are the basic units of our family, our neighbours, and our broader community. That’s why we should care about personal intelligence: Understanding personality is an indispensable part of what it means to be human at both an individual and social level. Improving our understanding of personalities may guide our journey toward a more peaceful, better-functioning world.

 

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3011356/Intelligence-based-nature-nurture-Study-finds-environment-plays-significant-role-smart-are.html

https://www.psychologytoday.com/basics/intelligence

http://bigthink.com/going-mental/what-is-intelligence-2

Facilitating student learning instead of presenting students with information

Facilitating student learning instead of presenting students with information

Teachers need to facilitate learning by making the educational process easier for students. This does not mean watering down curriculum or lowering standards. Rather, facilitating learning involves teaching students to think critically and understand how the learning process works.

Some teachers choose to take the center platform in their classroom while delivering their lectures, while others prefer to take the backseat and work as facilitator of the students. By facilitating students learning instead of presenting students with information as is common in our educational system, wherein teachers can encourage their students to take an active role in learning. Changing educational concepts and forcing students to give up their inactive roles that they took on in their classroom can be highly effective and lead to increased students comprehension.

We understand that a teacher plays an essential role in the process of education. I think, no teacher will ever become ideal, becoming totally ideal would mean that the teacher has achieved such a level of perfection that they no longer requires further effort towards improvement. Actually, we have different description of ideal teacher, usually if we are asked what your ideal teacher is. We answered it that “my ideal teacher possesses these characteristics”. We tend to describe on how we are comfortable with them and how we are go easy during class discussion and friend of outside. Without thinking that how much we learn from them or how are we gained knowledge and effect on our personal development.

The best teacher I had, having qualities to encourage students to interact while learning. Learning does not have to be a self-contained recreation. By allowing students to work with each other as they build understanding, we increase the likely that they remain engaged throughout the lesson and give them the opportunity to benefit from their classmates’ knowledge and skills. If I were asked to describe the ideal teacher, from my experience, I instantly think of this one person, though I am sure many fit the criteria for an ideal teacher, since it varies student to student. For example, the ideal teacher is someone who makes me enjoy learning, someone who is supportive, and someone who goes above the call of duty to help you out. Not everyone has the chance to find and meet this ideal teacher, but those lucky ones that do find this person, are blessed. I was one of the lucky ones, and I met my ideal teacher in my sophomore year of high school. Needless to say, she was my Math teacher during my sophomore year. When I walked into my Math class that first day, I knew I would instantly love this teacher; her crazily outgoing personality, and her silly voices that always made me laugh until I had tears streaming down my face.

Teachers have their own style in classroom management, like present the students with questions instead of answers, lectures for open ended questioning instead of telling students how something works, encourage students to work together and seek out an explanation for them. Within, finding the explanation instead of just listening to the teacher’s version of events, students more likely to internalize the information and place it in their long-term memory bank. Instead of taking on the standard roles of teacher and students, create a learning partnership with them. Set up partnership with your students, making it clear that we are working together as a class group to discover relevant information and enhance the group understanding of subject matter. As a teacher we not to set our self as an expert of the subject, but instead we are going to work as a tour guide to the students to understand the context of education. When times, students apply information they have learned, they are more likely to commit it to memory, so we are able to provide application opportunities to them. We can help the students to internalize their learning by giving those projects that specifically designed to encourage the information on application of learning. We can gauge that doing is better instead of simply seeing; students more likely retained their learning by experiencing it. Within our classroom management, we need to consider that there are different interpretations of learning, while some students learn best through orally presented, directions, others requires visual stimuli and still others learn best through movement and actions. Our role as a teacher is to select the best activities that appeal of different learning styles. Yes, this is not an easy task but we need to determine our students learning styles by presenting them with a learning activities, these data could help a lot in planning lesson and activities to fit the students learning style.

As a teacher, one of the most difficult aspects I have experienced is learning how to motivate my students. Gathering all students with different attitudes and culture is the most challenging in delivery of learning and designing strategies to keep them active in the class discussion. Students who are not motivated will not learn effectively. They won’t retain information, they don’t participate and some of them may even become disruptive. We are students and there are times that we are unmotivated for variety of reasons. There are times that we feel that they have no interest in the subject, find the teacher’s methods non-engaging or be distracted by external circumstances. Non-motivated students actually having difficulty in learning and is a need of special attention. While motivating students can be a difficult task, the rewards are more than worth it. Motivated students are more excited to learn and participate.

In my opinion, teachers who are passionate in teaching will be considered a high level in the society, there is nothing easy in teaching students. Perhaps, teaching a class with full of motivated students is enjoyable for teacher and students alike. Some students are self-motivated with the natural love of learning, but even with the students who do not have natural drive, a great teacher can make learning fun and inspired them to reach their full potential.

http://www.educatorstechnology.com/2014/04/27-ways-teachers-can-facilitate.html

http://www.faculty.londondeanery.ac.uk/e-learning/small-group-teaching/Facilitating_learning_teaching_-_learning_methods.pdf

http://www.academia.edu/1746309/STRATEGIES_FOR_FACILITATING_LEARNING_IN_CLASS

RR R.A no. 9258 known as GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING ACT OF 2004

RR R.A no. 9258 known as GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING ACT OF 2004(Reaction Paper)

During the implementation of the Guidance and Counselling Act of 2004 or the Republic Act 9258, probably, number of people heard it, but how many of us are truly aware of its effects on all flow. Maybe, we will say “that law is only applicable to all psychologists, guidance counsellor and those who practice such field of specialization”. Are we curious enough to question on, how fine do we understand the impact of the law on our current practice and future activities? Or there might even be some who are not fully aware of the law’s presence? Nevertheless, R.R. R.A 9258, also known as the Guidance and Counselling Act of 2004, is a law created and intended to professionalize the practice of guidance and counselling in the Philippines. The law also involves the creation of a Professional Regulatory Board of Guidance and Counselling who will be mandated by the law to formulate the necessary rules and regulations that will implement the provisions contained within, in coordination with the accredited professional organization.

Basically the laws summarized (RULE IV, section 27), that “No person shall engage in the practice of guidance and counselling without a valid Certificate of Registration and a valid Professional Identification Card or a Special Permit” and that “no corporation, partnership, association or entity shall operate a guidance and counselling office, center/clinic, testing center, rehabilitation center, or otherwise engage in the practice of guidance and counselling without first securing a permit from the Board”. Does this law affect the practitioner or does it boon or bane?

Actually, R.A 9258 shows an advantages and disadvantages for those who practice guidance and counselling, way of life, and community. As what stated in the declaration of Policy “to promote the improvement, advancement, and protection of the guidance and counselling profession by undertaking and instituting measures that will result in professional, ethical, relevant, efficient, and effective guidance and counselling services for the development and enrichment of individuals and groups”. The laws looking forward to legalize the guidance and counselling practice in the Philippines and prevention of improper practice. Today’s situations, many individuals were practicing guidance and counselling without any paper or certification, that comes out a question, do they provide excellent service than those who are certified? Probably, some will say YES and some also say NO. Each individuals always looking for satisfaction and you cannot please everybody or satisfy everyone of your rendered service. For example, you are asking help and advice to somebody of your personal problems, in fact you have an idea on how to go with it, upon knowing their opinion, you are still the only one to judge and responsible of the decision. Yet, all of us have its own way of practicing guidance and counselling. In our family, indeed we practice guidance and counselling to our children using our own ways, we all know that every day we are learning and our learning also lead to change our attitude and our attitude affects our behaviour, and people surrounds us to judge our practices as we apply of what we learned. Likewise, the guidance and counselling practitioner has their own approach of exercising their vocation, even if they do not have certificate but still they can manage to deliver the expected output. The only worries I have seen in the situations are those young generation who are planning to practice guidance and counselling that they may shift their career to other field, because of hardship in complying the requirements as stated in R.A 9258. With this situation, time comes that number of qualified practitioner will be reduced and other get into retirement age.

Guidance counselling Act of 2004 is an issue for those practitioners because it is the way of telling them that they are no longer allowed to practice by law and they need to spend several years to study, and train them, in effect, possibility of decreasing number of practitioner in the near future. However, it really depends on what one’s career goal, if he really works under the Guidance and Counselling so, he has no choice but to take up MA in Guidance and Counselling and apply for accreditation.

Thank you with gratitude EDS113!

Thank you with gratitude EDS 113!

With the grateful regards, I thank you all, my dear colleagues, group mates, classmates, friends and Professor Malou, for the great opportunity that I got from EDS 113 Principles and Methods of Assessment to learn the different type of assessment that will be beneficial to use in my personal and career life.

I have learned that one of the major factors to check the goals by using the assessment strategy, same with checking the students learning on how far they achieved from the learning objectives. Likewise, setting learning objectives not only applicable in school but also in personal life. Goal setting is a powerful process for thinking about our ideal future, and for motivating ourselves to turn our vision of this future into reality. Setting personal objectives help us choose where we want to go in life and knowing precisely what we want to achieve and where to concentrate our efforts. Why do we need to set goals? Because, setting goals gives long term vision and short term motivation. It focuses our acquisition of knowledge, and helps us to organize our time and resources so that we can make the very most in our life. We can measure and take pride in the achievement of our goals and this will be able to raise our self-confidence as we recognize our own ability and competence in achieving the goals that we have set.

There are times that we need to measure our achievements by high-stakes testing cause’s damage to our personality and education. Likewise, many students do not have a fair opportunity to learn the material on the test because they attend poorly-funded schools with large class sizes, too many teachers without subject area certification, and inadequate books, libraries, laboratories, computers and other facilities. These students are usually from low-income families, and many also suffer problems with housing, nutrition or health care. High-stakes tests punish them for things they cannot control. Grade retention has repeatedly been proven to be counterproductive. This will reflect to failure and mistake in assessment.

This subject enlighten me that we are responsible for our mistakes and failure and we need to be strong and set as example to the students on how we face failures and mistakes. Personally, I didn’t matter if I received a few hundred no’s, just as long as I received one yes. Students need to understand the same. Rejection, when looked at positively, can help us work harder in an effort to succeed. The reality is that when we do not prepare students for failure we are doing our students a difficulty. They must learn resiliency and how to move forward in the face of failure.

As an educator someday, we need to recognize that the problem for students is not that they make mistakes. The real problem is that teachers don’t use those mistakes to allow and promote learning. Because shame is currently attached to mistakes, students are afraid to take chances, explore, and think for themselves. As a clear example of how damaging this view can be, look at the face of most gifted and talented programs. In far too many schools, the students in these classes are not the most creative risk takers or unique thinkers. They are the students who scored the highest on standardized tests. Therefore, we label as gifted or talented the students who make the fewest mistakes. I believe that it’s a mistake to think of mistakes as something bad. When mistakes become learning opportunities, everything changes. Failure comes in many forms. It happens when students or educators try something new and it doesn’t work out the way they thought. These situations are a perfect time to learn how to deal with failure, or even better, teach students how to work through it. Failure can offer great learning lessons for us all if we choose to approach it with a positive attitude.

I have learnt a lot, not only assessing the students learning but also the way how to set my objectives in life which is considered a road to my goal and how failure affects students’ performance and behavior.

To my group no. 8, Miss Aimee Camino and Sir Alexander Avellanosa, Thank you for productive collaboration in our assignment 1 and 2. Even though, we have not seen each other but we value our phone conversations, face book group chat, email and discussion forum. I hope to see you someday.

Parents Participation in Assessment process

Parents Participation in Assessment process

Regardless of the age of the child, we have two major responsibilities in the area of assessment. The first is to actively participate in making decisions about which types of information are needed. The second is to assist the assessment professional in obtaining the most comprehensive information about our child, the visual condition, and the changes that we have seen over the years in our child’s functioning.

Administrators Initiatives in intervention programs for young children have strongly recommended that parents be involved in the assessment process. This is to contribute toward a more accurate diagnosis of and prescription for the developmental progress of the child. Child assessment has been an area in which the specialist retains strong professional control but a focus on parental involvement in assessment today is timely for ethical, theoretical and practical considerations where the parental role can be expanded.

It is extremely helpful to provide the assessment professional with specific questions or concerns that we may have about our child. For example, do we feel that the developments of daily living skills are not progressing as rapidly as we had hoped? Are we pleased about the way our child interacts with adults, but concerned about social interactions with peers? Do we see signs of increasing social withdrawal as your child become older? Specific questions can assist in planning the assessment not only in terms of types of evaluations requested, but also in the selection of a specific test to be used.

Schools gave students and their parent’s useful and relevant information about the assessment processes they used. Students and parents understood how the school was working to meet the child’s interests, aspirations and learning needs. It is important the partnership between family and school to enhance through common understanding about the school’s assessment processes.

It is often difficult for us, parents to see the advantages of formalized assessment in addition to that conducted in the classroom. The assessments are sometimes seen as a way to add undesired additional incapacities and part of a biased process that further increases the isolation of our child. It is important that teachers make a realistic appraisal of the advantages of the assessment process. Although parents often fear the possibility of the identification of additional incapacities, a more critical fear is that additional disabilities or specific needs will NOT be identified. The key to finding the strategies is quality assessment data that will identify specific strengths and needs as well as the presence of additional incapacities. Quality assessment should result in instructional changes. Whether these changes are based upon an objective statement of strengths and needs or additional incapacities, the ultimate outcome should be better instruction for our child.

Assessment should not be an evil to be avoided but an integral part of our child’s instructional program. Our responsibility as a parent is to ensure as much as possible that it is a quality assessment. What would be considered a quality assessment? Well, we have our different views in looking into a quality assessment but we could be considered that the individual completing the assessment has received information about the visual conditions as well as the educational implications, reports identifies specific strength and needs of the students. Recommendations are made to ensure continued growth toward independence for our child. Continuous improvement of our child may result into difficulty which is associated with the adjustments that are made in the assessment process. Both inadequate as well as excessive adjustments can make assessments less meaningful. The goal of all involved in the assessment process is to determine if changes can be made in a meaningful manner and to ensure that such adjustments are made appropriately.

To have a mutual understanding and combined goal for the child’s development, child assessment information must be made clear and meaningful to teacher and parents. Teacher need to help parents understand what the assessment information means about their child’s learning and development. Parents need to help teacher understand assessment information in bright of their observations of their child at home and in other settings. This is the ways to ensure that child development information is meaningful to parents for the purpose in helping the parents understand what assessment is, and that the goal of assessment is to support a child’s progress by informing the teacher and parent about different approaches to enhancing their child’s learning and development and parents to understand what the next stage of learning will be, so they can anticipate and look to support that next stage.

“Working with teachers in early childhood education for the benefit of all children often followed on from parents working with teachers for the benefit of their own child.”

 

 

http://www.nzcer.org.nz/system/files/15120.pdf

http://parenthood.library.wisc.edu/Graue/Graue.html

http://www.asian-nursingresearch.com/article/S1976-1317(16)00011-6/pdf

http://www.educationworld.com/a_curr/profdev/profdev124.shtml

Classroom Management: Which is Best? Teacher-centered or Student-centered approach?

Classroom Management: Which is Best? Teacher-centered or Student-centered approach?

Assessment is an integral part of our course design, but is it really measuring the learning that both of us and our students most wants to achieve? Many instructors still rely on standardized or traditional forms of assessment. Commonly used traditional tests are an appropriate method of measuring declarative knowledge or basic facts, but they may not be reasonable for the learner-centered style.

When considering their approach to instruction, teachers are always looking for the method that is most beneficial for all of their students. Teachers want their students to enjoy the learning process, and they want the classroom to be orderly and controlled.

In teacher-centered education, students put all of their focus on the teacher. Generally, the teacher talks and the students don’t do much conversing or collaborating. The original form the idea was that the teacher held ultimate authority and the students whose job was to absorb teacher-imparted information through passive listening, while the student-centered education both teacher and students efforts. But that doesn’t mean that the teacher doesn’t lead the room, or that the students pick a subject and start experimenting without any guidance. Instead, this approach usually involves a fair amount of interaction between the teacher and the students, as well as among students through group work and other collaborative activities.

During activities for teacher-centered approach, students work alone, and teamwork is discouraged, these activities can be altered, students and instructors share the focus, instead of listening to the teacher exclusively. Group work is encouraged, and students learn to collaborate and communicate with one another.

There are advantages and disadvantages of both type of education (teacher and student centered education)

Teacher-centered Education

Advantages

Disadvantages

–          The classroom remains orderly. Students are quiet, and the teacher retains full control of the classroom and its activities.

–          Students learn on their own, they learn to be independent and make their own decisions.

–          The teacher directs all classroom activities; they don’t have to worry that students will miss an important topic.

–          When students work alone, they don’t learn to collaborate with other students, and communication skills may suffer.

–          Teacher-centered instruction can get boring for students. Their minds may wander, and they may miss important facts.

–          Teacher-centered instruction doesn’t allow students to express themselves, ask questions and direct their own learning.

Student-centered Education

Advantages

Disadvantages

–          Students learn important communicative and collaborative skills through group work.

–          Students learn to direct their own learning, ask questions and complete tasks independently.

–          Students are more interested in learning activities when they can interact with one another and participate actively.

–          Students are talking; classrooms are often busy, noisy and chaotic.

–          Teachers must attempt to manage all students’ activities at once, which can be difficult when students are working on different stages of the same project.

–          The teacher doesn’t deliver instruction to all students at once; some students may miss important facts.

In current classroom situation, teachers have practiced toward a student-centered approach. However, some students maintain that teacher-centered education is the more effective strategy. When both approaches are used together, students can enjoy the positives of both types of education. Instead of getting bored with teacher-centered education or losing sight of their goals in a completely student-centered classroom, pupils can benefit from a well-balanced educational environment.

Assessing students outcomes, we should practice formative and summative assessment and should integrate grading, learning, and motivation for our students. Carefully planned assessment questions and methods make the time we spend grading assignments and tests meaningful.

Usually we tend to overstate in choosing the right assessment methods that provoke from our students the kind of learning that we want to measure. A combination of careful consideration, knowledge of our own students and analysis of their work are the keys. For example, if you teach math problems, you may want students to demonstrate their ability to solve problems and explain the process. Putting too much emphasis on getting the right answers can take away from the goals. So we should consider adding some of our assignments and exams: “have students draw a vertical line down the center of their page, dividing it into two columns. In one column they solve the problem, and in the other, they write sentences for each step to explain what they did and why.” So that, we can assess on how far they learned.

We should put in our mind that the most important thing is to choose assessment methods that will assess the type of learning we are trying to achieve in our lesson. That means that the methods that other instructors before we have used are not necessarily the only way or the best way to assess. It is all right to step outside our own comfort zone and outside what has traditionally been done, if we feel that an alternate assessment method will serve our students’ and our interests and goals better.

Even if, we are a new instructor, remember that we have spent many years as a student and therefore have information and experiences that will guide us in this process. Reflect on those experiences and decide if we want to do what we experienced and use those experiences in our own assessment design or whether we want to change the way we assess. If we do think change is necessary, ask ourselves why and how we will change things?

http://www.wcedcurriculum.westerncape.gov.za/files/eLearn%20Linked%20Articles/TeacherCenteredVsLearnerCenteredParadigms.pdf

https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Foundations_and_Assessment_of_Education/Edition_1/Foundations_Table_of_Contents/Chapter_2/2.6.2

Guides for Classroom Assessment

GUIDES FOR CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT

It’s not a stretch to say that assessment is a hot control issue in education; however, It would be hard pressed to find an educator who doesn’t see the value in measuring student progress. As we all know that assessment is the measurement of what students are learning. Student achievement is defined as how well they’ve mastered certain target skills. Assessments provide educators with both objective and subjective data in order to ascertain student progress and skill mastery. The information collected from assessments is extremely valuable. Besides a score, which gives quantitative data about how much of the material tested a students has mastered, information about student misconceptions can be determined by analyzing which we discover the factors that affect the performance and why. Information from assessments helps us, teachers determine which instructional approaches are best for certain students, what their students may already know about a given topic, and what subjects needs to be re-educated.

We already studied the assessment basics with different type of assessment and type of questions, which we considered our guide to assess our students.

Types of Assessment

  • Diagnostic:Given at the beginning of the school year, or the beginning of a new unit of study, a diagnostic test attempts to quantify what students already know about a topic.
  • Formative:Given throughout the learning process, formative assessments seek to determine how students are progressing through a certain learning goal.
  • Summative:Given at the end of the year or unit, summative assessments assess a student’s mastery of a topic after instruction.
  • Norm-referenced tests:These tests measure students against a national “norm” or average in order to rank students against each other. The SAT, ACT, Iowa Basic Skills Test, and other major state standardized tests are norm-referenced.
  • Criterion-referenced tests:These tests measure student performance against a standard or specific goal. Unit and chapter tests as usually criterion-referenced, as are the newly developed SBAC and PARCC Common Core tests.

Question Types

  • Multiple choice:These questions provide students with a stem and a set of discrete possible answers from which students must choose the correct one. The possible answers generally include one correct answer and three to four distractors, designed to mimic the common misconceptions students have about the concept being tested.
  • Constructed response:These questions require a written response. Usually they include a one-part question, and students respond by writing a paragraph or short essay, or building and solving an equation.
  • Extended constructed response:These questions, like the constructed response, require a written answer. The reason they are “extended” is that they are multi-part questions, requiring students to answer the first part of the question before answering subsequent parts, which may require reflection on or further explanation of an answer given in a previous section.
  • Technology enhanced:These items are given in computer delivered assessments.Technology enhanced items require students to interact with the material in various ways—through actions like dragging and dropping information, highlighting relevant text, and completing sentences or equations from items in a drop-down menu.
  • Performance task:These items require students to use multiple stimuli to solve a problem or create something new. Performance tasks are usually scored with a rubric, which includes the criteria students must keep in mind while developing their solution. Performance tasks in ELA may include reading multiple essays and synthesizing the ideas into their own writing. In math, these tasks may ask students to analyze charts and graphs and write out a plan for using the data in a real world application.
  • Informal:This category covers a wide range of tasks, from checklists to observations. Informal assessment doesn’t lead to a score, but it does help teachers gather important insights about students.

 

There are several methods of implementing the assessment to the learners like pencil and paper: There’s no need for a lengthy description with this delivery method. Examples include tests, quizzes, mind maps, and essays. Online tests mean each student needs access to a device on which to take the assessment, these online tests adapt as the user progresses through the questions. As a student gets answers correct, the program adjusts and gives the student increasingly more difficult questions. The converse is true, and the test will adapt to asking simpler questions to a student who is struggling with grade level topics. Adaptive testing gives educators a much broader picture of students’ ability levels. Rather than just labeling students on, above, or below grade level, a student’s actual level of knowledge can be assessed.

References:

Classroom Assessment Tools for Elementary Students; http://education.seattlepi.com/ classroom-assessment-tools-elementary-students-2454.html

http://www.edu.gov.mb.ca/k12/cur/languages/spanish/s1tos4_found/assessment.pdf